a b d g i j l m n r t u w y

M – m

maali   nominal. creek. Gurraga’niynhingi ngindaji maali. He crossed this creek. Category: Country.

maaningarri   Variant: maningarri. adverb. morning, tomorrow. Maaningarri wariyga’yiyirrwaniyngarri barrba. In the morning we’d set out on our trip again. Maaningarri wuba’widangarri mayingana milhangana yaninja. Next morning they’d cook the tucker or meat. Category: Time and Location.

maaningga   adverb. nighttime. Ngajirr’irangarri maaningga. He sneezes at night. Maaningga yaarriingga baga’arra yajil’arra buga. At night we sleep and dream of children. Category: Time and Location.

maangi   nominal. mate. Category: People.

mabili   nominal. Variant: mabilyi. English/Kriol ‘little one’/’lilwun’. little. Wad’burrangarri nga’birrangarri mabili-ingga buga. The little kids would take it and eat it. Manda bayiga’wurrmag bugaingga mabilyiingga. The kids would meet him halfway. Buga thay’wunbirrantha mamabili biyirrantha. They fed all of their little kids. Category: Describers.

madari   nominal. heel. Category: Body Parts.

madija   adverb. really, truly, extensively. Category: Manner.

madjali   Variant: majali. nominal. mother-in-law, mother of man’s wife, husband of daughter (for a woman). Category: People. [ARumsey]

madjaliway   Variant: majaliway. nominal. mother-in-law language, avoidance language. Category: Gun.gunma, Language.

madu   nominal. spear, single-piece. Category: Artifacts.

maina   nominal. plum, bush. nginda ya maina wadba’wurrmangarri this whatyoucallit bush plum they would get. Nginda, ya, maina wadba’wurrmangarri. They would get this bush plum. Category: Food and Cooking, Plants.

majali   nominal. cicatricising stone, stone, cicatricising. Category: Ceremony, Sensitive.

mala   nominal. mangrove, freshwater. Category: Plants.

mala   nominal. belly, stomach, guts. Category: Language, Gun.gunma.

malagalay   nominal. prickle. Category: Plants.

MALAMALAGA-   Variant: MALAMALA-. verb. intransitive: MAL+NI. cut. Note: GG marker malamalaga’maniy s/he cut. malamalaga’malbudiy they cut. Category: Verbs: Impact, Language, Gun.gunma.

malambarra   adverb. nearby. Category: Time and Location, Gun.gunma, Language.

malambu   nominal. flower? Category: Plants. See: wirru; marru.

malanyi   nominal. bad hunter. hunter, bad. Category: People.

malawu   nominal. lip. Category: Body Parts.

MALAYA- (1)   verb. Variant: MALAY-. transitive: MA2. knead. Category: Verbs: Motion. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME malay’ma s/he kneaded it. malay’wurrma they kneaded it. Wu’bunggurrag, malay’wunggurrmagi. You cook it, you knead it. Category: Verbs: Impact. [Knight (1/97:p.19,105)]

MALAYA- (2)   verb. Variant: MALAY-. transitive: WU2. knead. Category: Verbs: Motion. Note: BAD EFFECT; SEPARATE/COMBINE malaya’wunu s/he kneaded it. malaya’wurrunu they kneaded it. (Draibela) wurrga’wuliyha malaya’wulunu gudaya’wulunu. The dry one I’ll put it, I’ll knead it wet, I’ll knead it. Mayi wurrga’wuliyha malaya’wulunu gudaya’wulunu. The flour I’ll put with it, I’ll knead it wet, I’ll knead it. Category: Verbs: Impact. [Knight (1/97:p.19,105)]

MALGA- (1)   verb. transitive: RA2. dance. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME malga’ra s/he danced it. malga’wurra they danced it. Category: Verbs: Motion.

MALGA- (2)   verb. intransitive: RA. dance. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME malga’ray s/he danced. malga’wurray they danced. Category: Verbs: Motion.

MALIMBARRA- (1)   verb. Variant: MALIMBARR-. transitive: RA2. massage. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME. Appears that malimbarr+WU2 is possible: EKnight (1/97: notebook p.105), malimbarr’luwuni, ‘I helped her (to get the baby to come out)’ and malimbarr’inbunu, ‘you massaged her (like a doctor would)’. Needs checking. malimbarra’ra s/he massaged it. malimbarra’wurra Gurriy’girangarri guda, malimbarra’wirrangarri, yaninja. She’d help her with her (pregnant) belly, they’d massage it, alright. Category: Verbs: Impact.

MALIMBARRA- (2)   Variant: MALIMBARR-. verb. transitive: WU2. massage. massge e.g. helping giving birth. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME. Appears that malimbarr+WU2 is possible: EKnight (1/97: notebook p.105), malimbarr’luwuni, ‘I helped her (to get the baby to come out)’ and malimbarr’inbunu, ‘you massaged her (like a doctor would)’. malimbarra’wunu malimbarra’wurrunu they massaged it. Category: Verbs: Impact.

malmali   nominal. red. Category: Describers.

malmurru   nominal. spear, small wooden-tipped. Category: Artifacts.

malwaja   Variant: malwadja. nominal. mud. Yawada manja’yirranthangarri malwadja. We’d make a (toy) horse from mud. Category: Country.

malngarri   nominal. Variant: malmali. European person, red. literally ‘red person’?. Kriol = gardiya. diyga’nginarriyngarri malngarri ngayini baburru mandiwa’ngina ngayini malngarriingga that white fella found me down below and he belted me up. jiralinhingi ganday malngarri yatha’wurrayngarri ganday the whitefellas in those days were really bad. Diyga’nginarriyngarri malngarri ngayini baburru mandiwa’ngina ngayini malngarriingga. That white fella found me down below and he belted me up. Jiralinhingi ganday malngarri yatha’wurrayngarri ganday. The whitefellas in those days were really bad. Category: People, Describers.

malngirri   nominal. thunder, lightning. Category: Country.

mambu   nominal. clothes. Category: Artifacts.

mambu ngayi   nominal. naked. literally ‘clothes no’. Category: Artifacts.

mamu   nominal. corpse, devil, ghost. Category: People, Mythology.

mamulgu   nominal. sacred object. Category: Ceremony, Sensitive?.

mana   nominal. brother, older. Manawayingga wad’jayngarri. His older brother would go. Category: People.

manay   nominal. sister, older. Category: People.

Mandalunggara   nominal. Plum Plain. Mandalunggara wad’jay. He went to Plum Plain. Plum Plain is just to the west of Fitzroy Crossing. It often fills up with water backing up from both the Fitzroy River and Brooking Channel during the wet season and can resemble a small inland sea. Category: Country.

mandarra   nominal. gum (tree). Mandarra wurrga’wudangarri, gandiy wurrga’wudangarrinhingi. They’d put gum, they’d put spinifex wax with it. This gum is used both for the making of tools and also is edible. Category: Plants, Food and Cooking.

mandi   nominal. boomerang (non-returning). Category: Artifacts.

MANDIWA-   verb. transitive: RA2. belt (col.), beat. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME mandiwa’ra s/he belted him/her. mandiwa’wurra They belted him/her. Diyga’nginarriyngarri malngarri ngayini baburru mandiwa’ngina ngayini malngarriingga. That white fellow found me down below and he belted me up. Category: Verbs: Impact.

manibara   pronoun, indefinite. everything. Lundugudaya manibara muba’waniy. Stick and all he drowned. Category: Pronouns.

manjarri   interjection. sure enough. Category: Language, Interjections.

MANJA-   verb. transitive: MA2. make, build. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X manja’ma s/he made it. manja’wurrma they made it. Rarrgi manja’wunmagi. He builds up all the rocks. Mayi manja’lima, ngag’barrag warra mula’waniynya. I’m making the damper, we’ll all eat later when it becomes cooked. Category: Verbs: Impact.

MANJIMANJI-   verb. intransitive: RA. draw. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME manjimanji’yay s/he drew. manjimanji’wurray they drew. Category: Verbs: Motion.

mantha   adverb. facing each other. face to face. Mantha yatha’wurrayntha The two sat facing each other. Mantha wad’gurali. He’s coming this way, facing me. [Knight (2/98: p. 9)] Category: Time and Location.

mantha dumurru   nominal. chest. Category: Body Parts, Gun.gunma, Language.

manybu   nominal. fog. Category: Country.

MANYIRR-   verb. intransitive: MA. win. e.g. win a fight or foot race. Note: DO WITH BODY manyirr’ay s/he won. manyirr’burray they won. [Knight (2/98:p.35)] Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.

man.ga   nominal. ear. Category: Body Parts, Gun.gunma.

man.gulu   nominal. shade. Miymiy ngawijiy yatha’wurraynthangarri man.guluyuwa. Our two grandmothers would sit in the shade. Category: Country.

manba   buttocks, bum. Category: Body Parts, Sensitive.

mara   coals, hot. Marayuwa thin.ga’ngarri. She covered it in hot coals. Category: Food and Cooking. See: birrgi; ginjili; windingilngil; wumbularri; wumulu.

mariy   nominal. semen. Category: Body Parts, Sensitive.

marrija   adverb. far away, long way. Jilaj’girangarri wad’burraynthangarri marrijangana ngaamangana wad’burraynthanyangarri. She’d carry the baby under her arm and they would go anywhere, even to far away places. Category: Time and Location.

marrira   nominal. tree, leichhardt. Category: Plants.

marru   nominal. seed, malambu. seed of the malambu tree. See: malambu. Category: Plants.

marruli   Variant: marrulngarri. nominal. hair, grey. Category: Body Parts.

marulu   nominal. precious, valuable. Category: Describers.

MARURRA-   verb. transitive: WU2. care for, look after, foster. Note: BAD EFFECT; SEPARATE/COMBINE marurra’wunu s/he looked after him/her. marurra’wurrunu they looked after him/her. This verb refers to the caring of a child, for example, whose parents are unable to care for it themselves. Or perhaps caring for an animal that is hurt. [Knight (2/98:p.53)] Category: Verbs: Holding and Transfer.

MATHA-   verb. transitive: RA2. tell, tell about, indicate. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME matha’ra s/he told him/her. matha’wurra they told him/her. Matha’nginangarri ngindaji thangani. He told me this story. Category: Verbs: Speech.

Mawanban   nominal. Oscar Ranges. Category: Country.

mawunda   nominal. husband of cousin-sister (for man). Category: People.

mawurru   nominal. Variant: mawurra. ochre, white. Aga! Ngindaji mawurra ngangga’yanda. No way! This is white ochre they gave us. Category: Country, Ceremony.

mayada   nominal. pelican. Category: Animals: Birds.

mayaru   nominal. house. Yininggayingga birayga’yiyirrayngarri mayaruyuwa. Just like that we would arrive at the homestead. Category: Artifacts.

mayanggula   nominal. bachelor, man, unmarried, man, single. Category: People. [Knight (2/98:p.29)]

mayi   Variant: mai. nominal. food, vegetable, bush tucker, bread, damper. Nganhing’birrangarri, nganhing’birrangarri mayi nyirraji bugaingga. They’d lick it, the kids would lick that tucker. Category: Food and Cooking.

MAYIGA- (1)   verb. transitive: MA2. touch, sorry for, feel. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X mayiga’ma s/he touched it. mayiga’wurrma they touched it. [Knight (2/98:p.51/67)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

MAYIGA- (2)   verb. intransitive: MA. sorry, feel. mayiga’miy s/he felt sorry. mayiga’wurrmiy they felt sorry. Note: Note: mayiga+MA+OBL ‘feel sorry for X’. DO WITH BODY [Knight (2/98:p.67)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

mayinday   nominal. axe. Category: Gun.gunma, Language, Artifacts.

mangana   nominal. place, camp, country, hut, shade, windbreak, tree, copse. Category: Country, Gun.gunma.

manggay   nominal. wife, sister of wife (for man), sister of husband (for woman). Category: People.

MIDGA-   verb. transitive: MA2. tie on, tie up, bandage. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X midga’ma s/he tied him/her up. midga’wurrma they tied him/her up. Midga’wirrmangarri wilagurru. They’d tie it up all together. Category: Verbs: Impact.

MIDI-   verb. intransitive: RA2. partake. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME midi’ra s/he partook of it. midi’wurra they partook of it. [Knight (2/98:p.68)] Category: Verbs: Holding and Transfer.

midmidmili   nominal. policeman. literally ‘tie up good at’ i.e. good at tying up. Category: People.

migili   nominal. spear, single-piece. Category: Artifacts.

milalani   nominal. scorpion. Category: Animals: Insects and Spiders.

MILA- (1)   verb. transitive: RA2. see, look at, stare at, watch. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME mila’ra s/he looked at him/her. mila’wurra they looked at him/her. Wiyi ngayiali mila’alunayintha. I don’t see my wives. Mila’inja bugayani mayi. All you kids, look at the damper. Category: Verbs: Body Functions.

MILA- (2)   intransitive verb. verb root type:: RA. look around. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME mila’ray s/he looked around. mila’wurray they looked around. Mila’ra bandamiya. He looks around but there was only dirt. Category: Verbs: Body Functions.

milha   nominal. meat. Category: Food and Cooking.

miliy   nominal. liver. Category: Food and Cooking. Min.ga lirriy garra’ngarriyngarri, miliy wurrga’yangarri ngunjarau ngaggu. The fat and intestines he’d chuck away, but he’d put the liver aside for eating first. Category: Body Parts.

miljani   nominal. fingernail, toenail. Category: Body Parts.

miljidawurru   nominal. storm, southern. a storm from the south. Category: Country.

MILU-   verb. alive, be. intransitive: RA. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME milu’ray s/he was alive. milu’wurray they were alive. Category: Verbs: Body Functions.

milwa   nominal. angry, temper, bad, trouble. Category: Describers.

MILWA-   verb. angry, become, wild, become (col.) intransitive: NI. Note: BECOME milwa’niy s/he became angry. milwa’wudiy they became angry. [Knight (2/98:p.1)] Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.

milwirri   nominal. dove, red-eyed. Category: Animals: Birds.

milnggi   nominal. termite mound, antbed (col.) milngginhingi ngarranyiwayingga wirriyga’ma gambinyi wadba’ma thawununhingi from the antbed the mother dug up the ant eggs. Milngginhingi ngarranyiwayingga wirriyga’ma gambinyi wadba’ma thawununhingi. The mother dug up the ant eggs from the antbed. Category: Country.

minaluga   adverb. towards here. in this direction, this way, to here. minaluga wad’buraliyawu you come this way! Minaluga wad’buraliyawu! You come this way! Category: Time and Location.

MINANGGA-   verb. transitive: YHA. come up to, chase. Note: TRANSFER minangga’yha s/he came up to him/her. minangga’wuda they came up to him/her. Yaninja, minangga’wunbidangarri garrawan.ga’wuwunduwunungarri limbangarriingga. Right, the police would chase them and round them up. [Knight (2/98:p.12)] Category: Time and Location, Verbs: Holding and Transfer.

MINA-   verb. roll up. e.g. roll up a swag, blanket. transitive: YHA. Note: TRANSFER mina’yha s/he rolled it up. mina’wuda they rolled it up. Mina’wudangarri, yaninja ngawungu ngarragi wandayga’mangarri budbula. They’d roll them up, then my father would lift the blankets up on to his shoulder. Category: Verbs: Motion.

mindija   particle. true. Category: Language. [Knight (2/98:p.12)]

MINDIJA-   verb. believe. transitive: MA2. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X mindija’ma s/he belived him/her. mindija’wurrma they believed him/her. Category: Verbs: Speech.

MINJALA-   verb. chew. transitive: RA2. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME minjala’ra s/he chewed it. minjala’wurra they chewed it. [Knight (2/98:p.55)] Category: Verbs: Body Functions.

minju   nominal. tooth. Category: Body Parts.

minthini   nominal. heavy. Category: Describers.

minybali   munybali. nominal. thin, skinny. Category: Describers.

min.ga   nominal. fat, marrow. Min.ga lirriy garra’ngarriyngarri, miliy wurrga’yangarri ngunjarau ngaggu. The fat and intestines he’d chuck away but put the liver (aside for later). Category: Body Parts.

MIRIN.GA-   verb. know, recognise. transitive: YHA. Note: TRANSFER mirin.ga’yha s/he recognises him/her. mirin.ga’wuda they recognise him/her. mirin.ga’liyha nhu tharra I know her dog. Mirin.ga’liyha nhu tharra. I know her dog. [BO 5/5/98 (2/98:p.22)] [Knight (1/97:NSM75; 2/98:p.22)] Category: Verbs: Body Functions.

mirrilhini   nominal. rainbow. Category: Country.

MIRRINGGA-   verb. hold onto. intransitive: MAL+NI. Note: GG marker mirringga’maniy s/he held onto. mirringga’malbudiy they held onto. Category: Verbs: Holding and Transfer, Gun.gunma, Language.

mirrngi   nominal. face. Category: Body Parts.

miyamburru   nominal. eye. Category: Body Parts, Gun.gunma, Language.

miyanggu   nominal. man, fully initiated. Category: People, Sensitive?.

miymiy   Variant: mimi. nominal. grandmother (mother’s mother), grandchildren (children of daughter for woman). Miymiy ngawijiy yatha’wurraynthangarri man.guluyuwa. our two grandmothers would sit in the shade. Category: People.

mingali   nominal. hand, finger. Wad’jiyirrangarri mingaliyuwa, gurriy’jiyirrangarri. We took them (the cattle) in hand, we’d look after them. Category: Body Parts.

MUBA- (1)   verb. drown. transitive: WU2. muba’wunu s/he drowned him/her. muba’wurrunu they drowned him/her. [Knight (2/98:p.38)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

MUBA- (2)   verb. drown. intransitive: WU. Note: SOURCE FOCUSSED MOTION muba’waniy s/he drowned. muba’wurraniy they drowned. Ngaala, bayal’wurragi, ngaala gunggulu baburruga. Muba’wurraniygi. Some, they swam, others’ heads stayed under. They all drowned. [Knight (2/98:p.38)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

MUJA-   verb. burrow into. e.g. burrow into the ground. transitive: YHA. Note: TRANSFER muja’yha s/he burrowed into it. muja’wuda they burrowed into it. Category: Verbs: Impact.

muju   nominal. ? See: durru; wawanyi. Category: Animals: Reptiles and Amphibians.

mula   nominal. ripe, cooked. Category: Describers.

MULA   verb. cooked, become, ripen. intransitive: NI. Note: BECOME mula’niy it became cooked. mula’wudiy they became cooked. Balara mula’niynyangarri wawanyi. The goanna that had become cooked was put outside. Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.

MULULA- (1)   verb. sneak away from. transitive: MA2. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X mulula’ma s/he snuck away from him/her. mulula’wurrma they snuck away from him/her. Note: From EKnight (2/98: p. 8) I had mululu+WU2, check. [Knight (1/97:p.106)] Category: Verbs: Motion.

MULULA- (2)   verb. sneak away from. transitive: WU2. Note: BAD EFFECT; SEPARATE/COMBINE mulula’wunu s/he snuck away from him/her. mulula’wurrunu they snuck away from him/her. Note: From EKnight (2/98: p. 8) I had mululu+WU2, check. [Knight (1/97:p.106)] Category: Verbs: Motion.

MULULA- (3)   verb. sneak around. intransitive: RA. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME mulula’ray s/he snuck around. mulula’wurray they snuck around. Note: From EKnight (2/98: p. 8) I had mululu+WU2, check. [Knight (1/97:p.106)] Category: Verbs: Motion.

MULULA- (4)   verb. sneak away. intransitive: MA. mulula’miy s/he snuck away. mulula’wurrmiy they snuck away. Mulula’wurrmiyntha, walibirri gandawa’wurrayntha jarrangarringga birayga’wurrayntha. They snuck away, they waded into the Fitzroy River and came out on the other side. Note: From EKnight (2/98: p. 8) I had mululu+WU2, check. DO WITH BODY [Knight (1/97:p.106)] Category: Verbs: Motion.

mulurru   nominal. catfish. Balgawayga, wudij’birrmangarri mulurruwayga. They would spear all kinds of fish, barramundi, catfish, anything. Category: Animals: Fish.

MULURRUG-   verb. wander, lost. intransitive: RA. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME mulurrug’ay s/he wandered around lost. mulurrug’burray they wandered around lost. Category: Verbs: Speech.

mulu   nominal. eye. Ngarranggani gurama wad’jay mulu gandaya’niybiyirrangi nyirraji walyarra. A Dreamtime man went along and his eyes went bad on them at that sand bar. Category: Body Parts, Sensitive?. Deceased taboo?

MUMBA-   verb. wind up, coil up. e.g. coil up a hose or rope. MA2; transitive:  Note: DO WITH BODY TO X mumba’ma s/he wound it up. mumba’wurrma they wound it up. [Knight (2/98:p.59)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

MUNDU-   verb. quiet, keep, secret, keep. intransitive: RA2. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME mundu’ra s/he kept it quiet. mundu’wurra they kept it quiet. [Knight (2/98:p.65)] Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.

muraga   nominal. bloodwood tree, tree, bloodwood. Category: Plants.

MURRABA- (1)   Variant: MURRAGA-; MURRAG-. verb. lie down. MAL+NI; intransitive:  Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME murraba’maniy s/he lay down. murraba’malbudiy they lay down. Category: Gun.gunma, Language.

MURRABA- (2)   Variant: MURRAGA-; MURRAG. verb. lie down. intransitive: RA. Category: Verbs: State and Change of State. murraba’ray s/he lay down. murraba’wurray they lay down. Category: Gun.gunma, Language.

MURRGA-   verb. crush. transitive: RA2. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME murrga’ra s/he crushed it. murrga’wurra they crushed it. [Knight (2/98:p.30)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

MURULANGARRA-   verb. cry. cry with tears falling. intranstive: NI. murulangarra’niy s/he cried. murulangarra’wudiy they cried. Note: The explanation for thie verb (why it’s +NI) was ‘tears coming out, down’. GOAL FOCUSSED MOTION [Knight (2/98:p.54)] Category: Verbs: Body Functions.

muthura   nominal. rotten, stinking. Category: Describers.

muway   nominal. camp, place. Yungga’wunbidangarri marrija barrba ban.ga’wurrayngarri muwayyawu. They let them go and so they’d go back to their country. Gurama marrija yatha’wurrayngarri, muwayyuwa. Men had to stay far away, in the camp. Category: Country. Note: need to put another sentence in., nr5.9

muwuli   Variant: muwilhi. nominal. honey, bush. See: nhaa. sugarbag. Category: Animals: Insects and Spiders. Niyya muwuli wurrga’wudangarri muwuli. That bush honey they’d put with things, the bush honey. Note: It needs to be checked that this is actually a synonym of nhaa (sugarbag). Category: Food and Cooking.

muwurru   nominal. club, nulla nulla. Lumbu’wunbirrangarri muwurrungarriingga, ngaala lumbu’wunbirrangarri. They beat them with a club, and others they’d really beat them. Category: Artifacts, Sensitive?.

-ma   nominal suffix. indefinite, unknown. Ngunduma gurama nyirraji? Who’s that man? Wiyi milama’ya garrwaru? Did you see the woman yesterday? Note that this suffix may occur on either nominals or verbs. Category: Suffixes.

-mili   nominal suffix. characterised by, good at. Warijmili, warijmili. Warij’bunbirrangarri gurama. They were killers, killers. They killed the Aborigines. Category: Suffixes.

-miya   nominal suffix. only, just, exactly. girrgara’miy niy-miya he flies away – just him. Girrgara’miy, niymiya. He ran away, just him. Category: Suffixes.

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