a b d g i j l m n r t u w y

J – j

jabirri   nominal. spear, shovel, spear, fighting. Category: Artifacts.

jabiy   nominal. Variant: jaminyi; jabi. father of mother, grandfather. Category: People.

jada   nominal. Variant: jadangurru. straight, right, proper. Category: Describers.

jadajada   nominal. language, everyday Bunuba. This term for Bunuba language is in opposition to the mother-in-law language, Gun.gunma, which is used in an avoidance relationship situation. Category: Describers, Language.

JADGA- (1)   Variant: JAD-. verb. cook (earth oven). transitive: RA2. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME jad’gira s/he cooked it. jad’birra they cooked it. Nyaga’wurrunungarri bulumana wad’birrangarri jad’birrangarri. They speared the cattle and they took it and cooked it in an earth oven. [Knight (1/97: notebook p.18)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

JADGA- (2)   Variant: JAD-. verb. cook (in an earth oven). transitive: WU2. Note: BAD EFFECT; SEPARATE/COMBINE jadga’wunu s/he cooked it. jadga’wurrunu they cooked it. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jagarra   nominal. skin group (male). Category: People. A male subdivision term of one of the eight subsections into which Bunuba society is divided.

jagula   nominal. pubic cover, shell. Category: Ceremony, Sensitive.

jajalingga   nominal. parrot, crimson-winged. Category: Animals: Birds.

JAJARA-   verb. transitive: RA2. share with. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME jajara’ra s/he shared with him/her. jajara’wurra they shared with him/her. Mayi jajara’wurrangarribiyirrangi garuwangana, nginjagangana. burradiya. They’d share food with all of them and water, anything, whatever, just like that. Category: Verbs: Body Functions.

jalangana   nominal. kangaroo, big white. Category: Animals: Birds, Gun.gunma.

jalgurru   nominal. termite, ant, white. Category: Animal: Insects.

jalimanggurru   nominal. boomerang. Category: Artifacts, Gun.gunma.

jalmarra   nominal. feather, wing. Category: Animals: Birds.

JALNGGA-   verb. heal. magically manipulate someone’s body. transitive: MA2. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME jalngga’ma s/he healed him/her. jalngga’wurrma they healed him/her. Category: Verbs: Impact.

JALUNGURRA- (1)   verb. transitive: YHA. make good. Note: CAUSATIVE jalungurra’yha s/he made it good. jalungurra’wuda they made it good. Category: Verbs: Impact.

JALUNGURRA- (2)   verb. intransitive: NI. good, become. Note: BECOME jalungurra’niy s/he became good. jalungurra’wudiy they became good. Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.

jalungurru   nominal. good, gentle, quiet. Nga’birrangarri jalungurru. They would eat it, it was good. Category: Describers.

JALYUG-   verb. Variant: JALYU-. transitive: RA2. mix up, agitate. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME jalyug’gira s/he mixed it up. jalyug’burra they mixed it up. Wiyiingga baadi jalyu’burrangarri bilinyi ngindaji. The women mixed up this skin in the pannikin. Note: Check. Mona said this Jalyug word is soaking up something not mixing. Check with Pat and MO. [Knight (2/98:p.17, 1/97)] Category: Verbs: Motion.

jalnggangurru   nominal. doctor, Aboriginal. Category: People.

jamayina   nominal. axe (generic). Jamayina wadba’ma thalamaranhingarri. He brought an axe and cut up the meat for her. Category: Artifacts.

jambala   nominal. hot. milha thirrbuga’liyangiyirrangi jambala. I’m taking out the hot meat for us. Category: Describers.

jambila   nominal. barramundi, small. Category: Animals: Fish.

jambiyindi   nominal. skin group, male. A male subdivision term of one of the eight subsections into which Bunuba society is divided. Category: People.

jaminyi   nominal. Variant: jabiy. grandfather, father of mother, children of daughter. Ganday jaminyi ngarragi yingiy Gaminangu. My old grandfather’s name was Gaminangu. Category: People.

JAMI-   verb. pile up, heap up, gather. transitive: RA2. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME jami’ra s/he piled it up. jami’wurra they piled it up. Yaninja thawunuingga wad’girangarri jamijami’rangarri. The ants would then carry them off and heap them up. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jamuniwa   adverb. yesterday. Category: Time and Location.

JAMURRGA-   verb. transitive: YHA. heap up. Note: TRANSFER jamurrga’yha s/he heaped it up. jamurrga’wuda they heaped it up. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jandamangurru   nominal. Variant: jandamangarri. needle. Category: Artifacts. Note: Jalakbiya said that it is jandamangarri, not jandamangurru (21/4/98). [Knight (2/98:p.0)]

JANDAYAWA-   verb. intransitive: RA. poke, poke around. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME jandayawa’ray s/he poked around. jandayawa’wurray they poked around. Jandayawa’ray lundungarri. He poked around with his walking stick. Category: Verbs: Motion.

JANDA-   verb. transitive: MA2. pierce, spear. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X janda’ma s/he pierced it. janda’wurrma they pierced it. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jandangurru   nominal. boss, owner. Nyirrayani jandangurru ngiyirrangi muway. That mob is boss for our country. Category: People.

JANGANIYA-   verb. intransitive: MAL+NI. swallow, drink. Note: GG marker janganiya’maniy s/he drank. janganiya’malbudiy they drank. Category: Verbs: Body Functions, Gun.gunma.

JANGANI- (1)   verb. transitive: RA2. eat something. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME jangani’ra s/he ate it. jangani’wurra they ate it. Jangani’wurrangarri nyajindi. They would eat the meat. Note that nyajindi is the Gun.gunma word for ‘meat’. milha is the Bunuba word. Category: Verbs: Body Functions.

JANGANI- (2)   verb. intransitive: MAL+NI. eat. Note: GG marker jangani’maniy s/he ate. jangani’malbudiy they ate. Category: Verbs: Body Functions, Gun.gunma.

jangga   nominal. waterlily seedpod. Babirrinhingi jangga mayi wadba’arrma ngag’arra. We get the lily seed tucker from inside and eat it. Category: Plants.

jarinybara   nominal. crooked. e.g. a boomerang. Category: Describers.

jarraa   adverb. far away. Winthali jarraa winthali yawaga’ngarri. He hid the fire far away, he hid it. Category: Time and Location.

jarraaga   adverb. long way away. jarraa-ga baga’wurrayngarri marrija long way away they camped. Yaninja wad’burrayngarri muway diyga’wurrarriyngarri ngurru jarraaga. Alright they’d go and they’d find a camping place a long way away. Note: -ga, maybe not a separate entry but a suffixed nominal Category: Time and Location.

jarrangarringga   adverb. other side. Walibirri gandawa’wurrayntha jarrangarringga birayga’wurrayntha. The two waded into the Fitzroy River and came out on the other side. Note: Many spatial adverbs are derived forms from the addition of the -ngarriingga instrumental suffix. Category: Time and Location.

jarrgambirri   nominal. foot. Category: Body Parts, Gun.gunma.

jarringgi   nominal. flying fox. Category: Animals: Mammals.

JARRNGURI- (1)   verb. intransitive: MAL+NI. dance. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME jarrnguri’maniy s/he danced. jarrnguri’malbudiy they danced. Category: Verbs: Motion, Gun.gunma.

JARRNGURI- (2)   verb. intransitve: RA. dance. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME jarrnguri’yay s/he danced. jarrnguri’wurray they danced. Category: Verbs: Motion, Gun.gunma.

JARRWADGA-   verb. transitive: MA2. lift up, pull out. jarrwadga’ma s/he lifted it up. jarrwadga’wurrma they lifted it up. Jarrwadga’mangarri gurriy’girangarri. He’d lift it (the baby) up and hold onto it. [Knight (2/98: p.0)] Category: Verbs: Motion.

jawalyi   nominal. skin group, male. A male subdivision term of one of the eight subsections into which Bunuba society is divided. Category: People.

jawandi   nominal. skin group, male. A male subdivision term of one of the eight subsections into which Bunuba society is divided. Category: People.

jawawurru   nominal. kookaburra. Dacelo leachii. Category: Animals: Birds.

jawangari   nominal. skin group, male. A male subdivision term of one of the eight subsections into which Bunuba society is divided. Category: People.

jawiy   nominal. forehead. Category: Body Parts.

Jawiy   nominal. Lily Hole. Wulala’wurrayntha Jawiyyuwa jirali Ngarranggani. The two had this talk at Jawiy long ago in the Dreamtime. Category: Country.

JAWIY-   verb. transitive: RA2. tell, inform. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME jawiy’ra s/he told him/her. jawiy’wurra they told him/her. Ngarranggani gayinga jawiywa’anggirrinyagi. It’s a Dreamtime story that I’m telling you. Category: Verbs: Speech.

jawula   nominal. mouse, marsupial. Category: Animals: Mammals.

jawulu   nominal. calf. Category: Body Parts.

JAYIGA-   verb. transitive: WU2. fill (with food), overfill, stuff. Note: BAD EFFECT; SEPARATE/COMBINE jayiga’wunu s/he filled it. jayiga’wurrunu they filled it. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jayirriminyi   nominal. mouth, language, speech, story, name. Category: Body Parts, Language, Gun.gunma.

janga   nominal. food (plant). Category: Food and Cooking.

jangajanga   nominal. chains. Category: Artifacts.

jangala   nominal. skin group, male. A male subdivision term of one of the eight subsections into which Bunuba society is divided. Category: People.

janggarri   nominal. sweet, nice, good (taste). Janggarri gayinga nga’birrangarri nyirrajinhingi. It was sweet, they’d eat it then. Category: Describers.

janggurru   nominal. turtle, short-necked. Wirama’wurrayngarri janggurru. They’d grab the short-necked turtle. Category: Animals: Reptiles and Amphibians.

jibilyugu   nominal. duck. Category: Animals: Birds.

jibirri   adverb. downstream, west. See: jungunda. Wuruga’winag jibirri – warrambaingga. The flood water took them away – downstream. This directional term refers to the direction in which a river is flowing. Since, in Fitzroy Crossing, downstream is to the west then the term means west also. If downstream is parallel to another compass direction then this term means ‘that direction in which the river is flowing’. Category: Time and Location.

JILAJGA- (1)   Variant: JILAJ-. verb. transitive: YHA. carry underarm. carry underarm while walking along. Note: TRANSFER jilajga’yha s/he carried it underarm. jilajga’wuda they carried it underarm. Wanggu mayi, jilajga’wudangarri They’d carry the bush potato and bush tucker underarm. Category: Verbs: Holding and Transfer.

JILAJGA- (2)   Variant: JILAJ-. verb. carry underarm. transitive: RA2. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME jilaj’gira s/he carried it underarm. jilaj’burra they carried it underarm. Barrbangana marrija wad’burraynthangarri buga jilaj’girangarri. Even when they went on a long journey she’d carry the child under her arm. Category: Verbs: Holding and Transfer.

jiliwa   nominal. sinew, string. wanjirrinhingi jiliwa nyawanhingi the sinew from a kangaroo – from its tail. Category: Body Parts, Artifacts.

jilya   nominal. green, unripe. Larrgariy wadba’wirrmangarri jilya mayi. Yaninggaya dalja’ninyangarri. They would gather the nuts when they were still green, before it gets ripe. We grew up on it. Category: Describers.

JILYA- (1)   verb. transitive: WU2. bite (insect), sting. Note: BAD EFFECT;SEPARATE/COMBINE jilya’wunu it stung him/her. jilya’wurrunu they stung him/her. Category: Verbs: Impact.

JILYA- (2)   verb. transitive: MA2. bite (insect), sting. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X jilya’ma it stung him/her. jilya’wurrma they stung him/her. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jimani   nominal. honey, bush, sugarbag. See: nhaa. Category: Animals: Insects and Spiders, Food and Cooking.

jimara   nominal. spear (generic). Category: Artifacts, Gun.gunma.

jimarri   nominal. mate, friend. Category: People.

jimbila   nominal. spear, bottle. Category: Artifacts.

jinali   nominal. spear (generic). Jinali yiriyiriga’rangarri. he would straighten the spears. Ngarranggani wa[‘burrayngarri jinalingarri. Long ago they used to travel along carrying spears. Category: Artifacts.

JINARRA-   verb. aim at (e.g. a weapon like a gun or spear), threaten. aim at e.g. with a weapon like a gun or spear. transitive: WU2. Note: BAD EFFECT; SEPARATE/COMBINE jinarra’wunu s/he aimed at me. jinarra’wurrunu they aimed at me. [Knight (2/98: p.2)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

jindili   nominal. vagina. Category: Body Parts, Sensitive.

jindiwirrinyi   nominal. willy wagtail. Rhipidura leucophrys. Category: Animals: Birds.

jingirri   nominal. arm, lower. Category: Body Parts.

jirali   adverb. before, long time, forever, olden days. milha jirali dangayga’wunungarri he’d have already killed the game. Ngarranggani jirali yiningga gijali ngag’aarrangarri milha mayi just like before in the Dreamtime we would have been eating meat and bush tucker raw. jirali-nga olden days. Ngarranggani jirali yiningga gijali ngag’aarrangarri milha mayi. Just like before, in the Dreamtime we would have been eating meat and bush tucker raw. Category: Time and Location.

jiraliga   nominal. old, very, long ago. Category: Describers.

JIRA-   verb. intransitive: WU. fall. Note: SOURCE FOCUSSED MOTION jira’waniy s/he fell. jira’wurraniy they fell. Ya mula’ninyangarri nyirramiya mayi jira’waniyngarriali, jira’waniyngarri. When it became ripe only that fruit would fall this way, it fell. Category: Verbs: Motion.

JIRIGA-   verb. intransitive: NI. bird, become. Note: BECOME jiriga’niy s/he became a bird. jiriga’wudiy they became birds. Lundugudaya manibara muba’waniy, jiriga’niy. Stick and all he drowned, and he became a bird then. Category: Verbs: State and Change of State, Mythology, Ceremony.

jirigi   nominal. bird (generic), wren, purple-crowned fairy. Malurus coronatus. Baga’wurraynyangarri gawarra jirigi winyi’wirranyangarri “jirigi jirigi”, When they were sleeping they heard the early bird chirping “jirigi jirirgi”, Note: From Ngarranggani. The Purple crowned Fairy wren was the first bird and he was called jirigi. He was the boss for all the other birds and when the others asked him what their names were he said that they had to find that out for themselves. He had his name, they had to find other names for themselves. He calls his own name ‘jirigi jirigi’ today. Category: Animals: Birds, Mythology.

jirragi   nominal. frog, white. Category: Animals: Reptiles and Amphibians.

jirrawurriny   nominal. bohemia flower. Category: Plants.

JIRRBALA-   Variant: JIRRBAL-. verb. transitive: WU2. pain, be in. Note: BAD EFFECT; SEPARATE/COMBINE jirrbala’wunu it caused him/her pain. jirrbala’wunbunu it caused them pain. Note: Note that the experiencer of the pain is the object, i.e. ‘it pains me’ rather than ‘I’m in pain’. That is, an impersonal construction. [Knight (1/97:NSM35;2/98:p.1)] Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.

Jirrin.gin   nominal. owlet, spotted nightjar. Aegotheles cristatus. Category: Mythology, Ceremony, Animals: Birds.

JIRRMALA- (1)   verb. transitive: RA2. shame, embarrass. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME. Check jirrmala+RA2. jirrmala’ra s/he embarrassed him/her. jirrmala’wurra they embarrassed him/her. Category: Verbs: Impact. [Knight (2/98:p.6)]

JIRRMALA- (2)   verb. transitive: YHA. shamed by, be. Note: CAUSATIVE jirrmala’yha s/he shamed him/her. jirrmala’wuda they shamed him/her. [Knight (2/98:p.6)] Category: Verbs: Impact.

jiyinyjili   nominal. ti tree. See: gandiwali. Category: Plants.

jiyirri   nominal. kingfisher. Category: Animals: Birds.

JIYJAJIYJA-   verb. intransitive: RA. rain, light. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME jiyjajiyja’ray it rained lightly. Thalanggangarri garuwa wurrga’yhabiyirrantha, jiyjajiyja’raybiyirrantha. (The Rainbow Serpent) Windy rain he put on them, made it rain lightly on them. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jingi   adverb. downstream. Jingi winyi’wurra “bud bud bud bud”. Downstream they heard him go “bud bud bud bud”. Category: Time and Location.


verb. intransitive: WU. bend over. Note: SOURCE FOCUSSED MOTION judinyga’waniy s/he bent over. judinyga’wurraniy they bent over. Category: Verbs: Motion.


verb. intransitve: RA. crouch. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME judiny’giray s/he crouched. judiny’gurray they crouched. Category: Verbs: Motion.

jugu   nominal. son (for man or woman), daughter (for woman). Category: People.

jularrga   nominal. wallaroo, euro. Category: Animals: Mammals.

julayi   nominal. swan, black. Category: Animals: Birds.


verb. marry. intransitive: WU. Note: SOURCE FOCUSSED MOTION julurr’waniy s/he married. julurr’wurraniy they married. Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.


verb. married, become. intransitive: NI. Note: BECOME julurra’niy s/he became married. julurra’wudiy they became married. Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.

JULYA- (1)   verb. transitive: YHA. squeeze. Note: TRANSFER julya’yha s/he squeezed it. julya’wuda they squeezed it. Category: Verbs: Impact.

JULYA- (2)   verb. squeeze. intransitive: MA. Note: DO WITH BODY julya’miy s/he squeezed. julya’wurrmiy they squeezed. Category: Verbs: Motion.

JULYA- (3)   verb. transitive: MA2. squeeze. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X julya’ma s/he squeezed it. julya’wurrma they squeezed it. Category: Verbs: Impact.

JULYURRTHA- (1)   verb. transitive: RA2. brand. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME julyurrtha’ra s/he branded it. julyurrtha’wurra they branded it. Category: Verbs: Impact.

JULYURRTHA- (2)   verb. transitive: YHA. brand. Note: TRANSFER julyurrtha’yha s/he branded it. julyurrtha’wuda they branded it. Julyurrtha’yidangarri ban.ga’yiyirrangarri. We’d brand the cattle and bring them back. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jumbulu   nominal. dry. Category: Describers.

junba   nominal. corroboree. Barrbarra’burrayni wilagurru junba burij’birrangarri. They painted themselves up, right and they danced a corroboree. Category: Ceremony.

JURINY-   verb. intransitive: RA. comb, brush. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME. juriny+trans? jurinyg’ay s/he combed. juriny’gurray they combed. [Knight (2/98:p.59)] Category: Verbs: Motion.

JURRA-   verb. transitive: YHA. rain, make pour, rain, make heavy. Note: CAUSATIVE jurra’yha s/he made it pour rain. jurra’wuda Jurra’yhabiyirrantha rawurranalu. He made it pour rain on those two from above. Category: Verbs: Impact.

jurrguna   nominal. bower bird. See: juwijbani. Chlamydera muchalis. Category: Animals: Birds.

jurrumbulu   nominal. dog. [tharra] Category: Animals: Mammals, Gun.gunma.

JURUGA- (1)   verb. Variant: JURUG-. transitive: RA2. dive for. Note: DO WITH BODY TO X OVER TIME juruga’ra s/he dived for it. juruga’wurra they dived for it. Category: Verbs: Holding and Transfer.

JURUGA- (2)   verb. intransitive: RA. bathe, swim. Note: DO WITH BODY OVER TIME juruga’ray s/he swam. juruga’wurray they swam. Category: Verbs: Motion.

JURUGA- (3)   verb. intransitive: NI. drown, water, go down into. Note: GOAL FOCUSSED MOTION juruga’niy s/he drowned. juruga’wudiy they drowned. Wad’jay baburruga juruga’niy. He went down into this water. Category: Verbs: Motion.

juwijbani   nominal. bower bird. See: jurrguna. Chlamydera muchalis. Category: Animals: Birds.

juwinyma   nominal. barramundi, big. Category: Animals: Fish.

juwumbu   nominal. elbow. Category: Body Parts.

JUWURRA-   verb. intransitive: NI. paralysed, become, numb, become, feel. Note: BECOME. -jangi = semblative clitic juwurrujanga’niy s/he became numb. juwurrujanga’wudiy they became numb. This verb refers to a person becoming paralysed through being ‘sung’. They are punished in this way. The paralysis is like being in a dream, not being able to move. Category: Verbs: State and Change of State.

juwurru   nominal. skin group, male. A male subdivision term of one of the eight subsections into which Bunuba society is divided. Category: People.

junggali   nominal. Hyrtls Tandan, Rendahl’s catfish. catfish. Category: Animals: Fish.

jungunda   adverb. downstream. See: jibirri. Jungunda baga’ra. He lives downstream. Category: Time and Location.

jungunyi   nominal. mosquito, fly, fruit. image from website. Category: Animals: Insects and Spiders.

jungurra   nominal. skin group, male. A male subdivision term of one of the eight subsections into which Bunuba society is divided. Category: People.

-jangi   nominal suffix. like. Gananyijangi manja’wirrmangarri. They’d make it sharp like a digging stick. Note that this suffix may occur on either nominals or verbs. Category: Suffixes.

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